PACINET 2012 Sessions

 

Day 1 – Thursday 22nd November

Welcome speech OPENING  of PacINET  – Thursday 22nd Nov 2012

Kia Orana, Ni Sa Bula, Fakalofa Lahi Atu, Malo e Lelei, Talofa Lava,  Kia Ora, Greetings to everyone here and welcome to the 11th PacINET, the conference of the Pacific Islands Chapter of the Internet Society (affectionately known as PICISOC).

It is a privilege to be able to hold our PacINET conference in Fiji, and especially in this beautiful venue, the Japan-Pacific ICT  Centre and a warm welcome to the Vice Chancellor and to our other guests from the University and from around the Pacific region, who are here with us today at the occasion of our 11th PacINET but celebrating 10 years of PacINETs.. which began in Nadi in 2002.

2012 is also the 20th anniversary of the Internet Society itself.  20 years ago the internet was formed by people who still have a lot to do with the internet even today. The most well known being Vint Cerf, often referred to the Father of the Internet, and now an Evangelist for Google.  Vint has been a very staunch supporter of the development of the internet in the Pacific and I understand he has attended 3 PacINETs in the past, and I know he has financially supported more.

In the 20 years of its history, the Internet Society now has over 80 chapters  worldwide but none of the others share our uniqueness of having members from 22 countries that make up the Pacific region. And each of these countries are so unique in themselves, from the large islands of Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, to those whose islands cover large expanses of ocean like the Federated States of Micronesia and Kiribati, to the single small islands like Niue and Nauru.

Yet accumulatively, each of our members from these small island states, are part of an organisation that represents the millions of internet users world wide and all pushing the same message which is supported by the United Nations as a right.. and that is that the Internet is for everyone.

Last night we were privileged to be able to include past leaders of PICISOC who had a vision to establish an organisation that would help and support internet users in the Pacific.

One person who really wanted to be here but was unable to because he is travelling to an important internet-related meeting in Dubai, is Rajnesh Singh, a boy from Fiji who now heads the Asia Pacific Bureau of the Internet Society based in Singapore.. I’d like to read a special message to you all from Rajnesh.

 

Dear Members, Colleagues and Friends,

 

I have requested Maureen to read out this personal message on my behalf as I was not able to make it to PacINET due to prior and ultimately unavoidable commitments – and I did try very hard to come, as PacINET is in my home country this year.

 

Firstly, hearty congratulations on reaching a milestone – the 10th year of PacINETs. Congratulations and kudos to all those who have contributed over the years to PICISOC and PacINET’s success – all this has only been possible with your goodwill and support.

 

I recall the very first PacINET held in Nadi, which was a relatively small affair, and the many after that which built up to become the Pacific’s largest conference of its kind. We were fortunate to have Vint Cerf, one of the fathers of the Internet and co-inventor of the Internet Protocol, keynote not once but twice at past PacINETs. Vint is also the Founding President of the Internet Society.

Over the past 10 years, PacINET has done much for the Pacific Islands. It has brought many Internet experts to the Pacific so that we can benefit from their knowledge and wisdom, and it has helped raise awareness of policy and technical issues not only within the region, but internationally. This includes highlighting Pacific issues, some of which are unique, at global fora – and we have good impact at these over the years.

One of the things we decided as the PICISOC board many years ago, when I was fortunate enough to be a part of it, was to ensure that PacINET was held in every country that could host it – and was not limited to the larger countries in the region. The Internet is for everyone, and by moving PacINET around the region, we are able to reach a much wider range of people. Quite a few would never have the opportunity to attend such a conference if we did not do this.

I sincerely hope you all will contribute in helping this to continue in the future. I would encourage the younger members of the audience to get engaged with PICISOC and help drive discussions and debates on Internet issues that are important to you and those around you. There is still much to be done.

The Internet has had a profound impact globally, and continues to do so in many aspects of life, everyday, all over the world. A large part of its success is due to how the Internet is structured – no one owns, no one rules it, and permission is not required for innovation and creativity on the Internet. Anyone and everyone can contribute to its development, and policy and technical discussions take place in a multi stakeholder environment.

It is therefore important that we maintain this model, and we keep the Internet open and accessible so that it continues to grow and evolve – and helps us truly realise our full potential.

This is our Internet. Let’s keep it that way.

 

With my best wishes for a great conference and a bright future,

Rajnesh Singh

Past-Chair, PICISOC and APRALO

Regional Director, Asia-Pacific, Internet Society

 

Raj has said it all…

 

In conclusion, I must take this opportunity before we get started on the programme for this conference, that really thank the hard working team that has put this event to gether.

We at PICISOC don’t make things easy for ourselves, and holding an annual event in a different country is just one of the many challenges that we meet head on and deal with because we are a regional organisation that wants to add value to the lives of our members wherever they may be.  Things may not always go as planned but the representatives of our key partners – Kisione from USP and Anju from SPC – have bravely shouldered any problems that arose, and just made it happen for us. So from us as a Board, scattered all over the Pacific and who weren’t here until the last few minutes of preparation, we say a very big thank you.

And once again, a big welcome to everyone who is here, I hope you enjoy your week with us and that when you leave, you arrive safely to your homes. I hope too that you will be able to take away something special from this event that may inspire some more work in your own areas of internet development in your own home countries, and know that we are only an email away at picisoc.org

Thank you. Meitaki maata. Kia manuia.

Enabling Environments

Ellen Strickland – session chair

Muhammad Aslam Hayat – Pacific ICT Regulatory Research Centre (PIRRC)

Save Vocea – ICANN

Dr. Mahendra Reddy – Fiji National University

 

Muhammad  Aslam Hayat – Pacific ICT Regulatory Research Centre (PIRRC)

The Pacific is a very big region. Region is unique, challenges are unique and so are its people

PICs lack expertise ICT regulatory experience

Caribbean style – super regulator that looks after the region as a whole – the Pacific solution was a resource centre from which PICs can draw on expertise and resources for application in their own country.

ADB and World Bank provided the seed funding for PIRRC and is located at Japan-Pacific ICT Centre at USP

Ideally, this will lead to harmonisation of ICT regulations in the region

Steering committee contains a range of PICs (Cooks, Islands, Samoa, USP)

There are a wide variety of regulatory models in the Pacific – monopoly to duopoly to open competition

Challenges of PIRRC

  • Good decision making is constrained by poor indicators PIRRC priority is to develop these indicators
  • Spectrum management is more than a spectrum plan
  • Numbering plans
  • Broadband – study of Samoa, X and Y
  • Universal Access Schemes
  • Limited International connectivity
  • Competition and Content regulations

The diversity of size of populations raises the question whether there is a one-size-fits-all regulatory policy for PICs?

The size of regulatory authority staff are similarly divers (400 + staff in PNG – 4 in Tuvalu) Its not possible for some to have expertise in the areas of economics, spectrum, technology and so on.

Six countries still have monopolies; eight have competition; In a practical sense, in some cases Palau there are two companies but they are not in active competition; in Fiji ownership of companies still require to be addressed. Its not easy

 

Nine countries have no separate regulator; Six have a separate regulator
CooksFSMNauruPalauRMITongaTuvalu FijiKiribatiPNG (converged)Samoa (multi sector)Solomon IslandsVanuatu

 

Divergence in licensing

  • Service Specific licenses
  • Converged licensing
  • Unified licensing

The challenges of harmonisation are clear from the previous points

One thing is clear that competition leads to growth, higher penetration and cheaper rates – overall bandwidth is available to the country

Limitation of resources in the PICs is acute and there is n sense in re-inventing the wheel. The need to cooperate between various agencies (ADB, World Bank, ITU, APT, SPC, PIRRC) is paramount to maximise the benefits of strengths of each.

Current work:

  • Telecoms
  • Model Universal Access Policy
  • Broadband case studies
  • Benchmarking regional roaming.

 

Dr Mahendra Reddy, Fiji National University

Telecommunications Market Structure in Fiji and the need for price controls? Or other regulatory interventions?

Decision about telecommunications infrastructure have direct impacts on economic performance namely growth

New technologies, fibre optics, satellites, mobile technologies, increased availability of data. Growth in telecoms has been unprecedented.

 

State ownership was justified on universal access principles (along with water electricity) and governments ability to invest in large infrastructure

Shortcoming of state ownership monopolies is lack of efficiency and poor business acumen.

3 telecom operators – two national (Telecom Fiji and Vodafone) and one international gateway (FINTEL)

Holding company ownership of all companies links to one company called ATH which is owned by government which has majority ownership over

Digicel entered to make two mobile operators in Fiji. Prior to this Vodafone launched a mobile service called IKK

Both operators subsidise handsets  – can exercise control of customers by locking of handsets

Vodafone has 75% part of market and Digicel in 25%.

TFL has ownership of fixed line market

Data is available form a number of operators on an unwired basis.

Benchmarking exercises undertaken against similar cases to Fiji.

Both rates have adopted a glide path 23%-11% drop/rise interconnection between operators

Data prices have slowly dropped

FINTELS landing station is now available to sell data to all operators from Southern Cross Cable

TFL now procures data making it a wholesale provider?

In summary

  • Vodafone has substantial market power and is in the position to abuse position by predatory prices.
  • In the fixed line there is only one operator
  • In the data market except for Digicel all are part of the ATH stable raising questions
  • Under these conditions regulatory market oversight is very necessary.

The wholesale market is being regulated by the FCC – Dr Reddy argues there is a need for regulatory oversight of market even though companies will react negatively to this suggestion.

The need for scientific measurement of indicators are needed.

In summary Fiji market is far from a competitive market

 

Save Vocea – Changes in Top Level Domain (TLD) Landscape

TLD Namespace – Save explained the structure of the DNS hierarchical structure .or; .com. are all TLDs

Registry organisations are run by companies that are both for for profit and not-for-profit

gTLS – generic Topic Level domain (.com;.org. net. info– regulated by commercial arrangement with ICANN)

ccTLD – two lay codes – .fj;.tv; . vu.    Non Latin characters for characters in local language has recently been offered by ICANN.

Registrars – national business entities some accredited with ICANN others are not

Registration of domain name example was given. The growth of domain names has been explosive 2040 million domain names was registered. .tk has 10,5 million domain names!

 

Total number 1000+

Application for IDN strings: 115

Applications for community-based strings 85

Applications for geographic names 59

Financial support applications 3

For accurate numbers refer to presentation…

There is some concern from countries that rely on ccTLD for revenue with new gTLDs. There is a general lack of interest in the topic .

There is scope for local users to use local ccTLDs more.

Registrars have a role to play in facilitating access to gTLD by new applicants from new ventures in PICs

There are various forums that deal with TLD issues and gTLDs. Refer to presentation for links.

Save finished by explaining what ICANN seeks to achieve and organisation by showing the audience a doodle digram. He then introduced the myICANN webportal.

AT large community Asia Pacific At Large Community – PICISOC is a member and represented by on this committee.

There is also the GAC (Governemnt Advisory Committee) which has a number of PICs as members.

Generic Names Supporting Organisations – a place for commercial entities to participate in ICANN.

 

Xxxxxxxxxxxx

Responses to questions from the floor

Collecting information can be difficult when there are only a few operators because of commercial in confidence provisions.

The inclusion of multi-stakeholder groups in ICT regulatory processes is a works-in-progress as there is much work to do for PIRRC in engaging with ICT regulatory authorities in PIC governments first.

Disability issues are an important aspect of Universal Access Policies

 

Day 2 – Friday 23rd November

Session 4 – Application: ICT in Key Economic Sectors cont…
Moderated by Will Tibben
Umesh Chandra – National IT Manager
Fiji Revenue & Custom Authority
Presentation on Tax & Portal & FRCA Systems
Provide an overview of the ICT Initiatives and challenges
Intro
FRCA in Jan 1999
former IRD & Customs
Collect more than 90% of the Government’s total revenue
www.frca.org.fj
Important tool for delivery of service
Website Revamp – provide better use interaction & ease of navigation
provide users a better web experience and timely information
– Better layout of Homepage
– Fast downloads
– Frequent news updates
– User registration/subscriptions
– Multi Language capabilities
What to expect
– Online chat
– Audi/video articles
– social media
– Adapt with the changing requirements
Tax Portal
– Provide online services for Tax payers
– Tax Agent Portal implemented in 2010
– Tax Portal Tender – Final Evaluation Phase
– Implementation will be phased
– Starting from enhancement of Tax Agent Portal to Electronic Lodgement of Returns
Single Window System
WCO definition World Customs Organisations
Facilitate and Enhance Trade Systems
Some Benefits for Government & Industry
– Supply chain security increased
– More effective & Efficient use of resources
Challenges in Fiji with undertaking this project
– High staff turnover/Lack of IT Skills
– New initiatives/ Changing requirements
– Increase Online Demand
– High Availability Systems
– Security
– Improve Efficiency/Reduce Cost
– Constantly Changing Technology
– Infrastructure/Connectivity
————————————————————————–
Ian Thompson
e-Learning – What is happening in Pacific Education
Blended Learning
Coming traditional Face to Face classroom time with online learning activities
– Adding specialist courses through –Learning
– To develop the capacity of teachers
– Using OER’s (Open Educational Resources)
– Adding new devices like OLPC, mobiles, interactive white boards, notepads, iPads, etc
– Providing broadband and computer centres
– Developing learning networks for teachers and students
Comment – No where to go and learn how to teach e-Learning
Stages of e-Learning
1. Not yet started
2. Emerging (Applying productivity tools)
3. Applying (enhancing traditional teaching
4. Infusing (facilitated Learning using multi modal instruction
5. Transforming (creating and managing creative open learning environments)
Inherent in all the stages is the following progression:
What happens in advanced classrooms
– Some teachers use Kahn videos
– Some teachers break the class into groups to work with different tasks using e-Learning, then focus on the students that need individual teaching
– Some teachers form learning networks and teachers and students share their learning
– Some teachers search the net for good resources, adapt them for the class and lesson plan and make them available for other teachers
– Some students study specialist subjects online with local teacher support
– Some teachers do online (and often free) training on specialist subjects as part of Professional Development
Why does the Pacific need to embrace this
– To develop 21st Century skills in our learners
– So what are 21stC skills
We need the 4 C’s
– Critical thinking
Creativity
Communication
Collaboration
So what is happening in Pacific Schools
– Computer literacy
– Information literacy
– Using ICTs to teach and learn
What can we learn from?
– NZ school approaches ad resources
– UNESCO resources
What is happening in USP?
35Gb file of education resources available from Ian
What needs to be done?
– The KEY is Partnering
– MOE’s to produce policies and plans
– Get the infrastructures to schools
– Train teachers
– Develop Pacific Education Portal and add local content
– Network teachers – share info, learn from each other
———————————————————————————
Shivanjni Anamika
Research Assitant PIRRC Pacific ICT Regulatory Resource Centre
Why have a Web Presence?
– Easier for consumers to reach Regulatoory bodies
Transparency
Easy Access to info
– Consumer and Citizen
Business
Policy
Current stuation
2012 PIRRC NRA website survey
8 PIRRC countries don’t have NRA Websites:
– Cook Islands, Fiji, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Tuvalu
– Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Marshall Islands and Tonga had government department (which regulated the ector) websites
The remaining 5 countries have NRA websites
– Solomon Islands, PNG, Vanuatu, Samoa, Kiribati
—————————
Anju Mangal – SPC
Agriculture, ICT & Internet for Development
An overview on SPC functions and branches
– 22 PICTs developed the JCS (Joint Country Strategy) in partnership with SPC
-2010, Heads of Agriculture and Forestry Services meeting agreed to:
– Acknowledge that ICT is an important tool
-Information, Knowledge Management
– Designed Portal for staff and resource people to access info
– One stop database system (Animal Health database, Pest List DB, Pacific Regional statistics, etc)
– a GS developed with SPC, SOPAC, Climate change project, etc
– Social Media plus TikiWiki
In house and stakeholder trainings
– conduct IKM analysis with staff to prioritise needs
– 2011 and 2012 SPC organises Webv2.0/Social Media training targeting SPC staff and key stakeholders from the different Ministries in Fiji
– Targeted youths in agriculture/forestry and rural development
New developments – Market Information Systems
– 2010
What’s happening now?
Damien Whippy about F1 – http://f1.com.fj/index.php/about-us
Tim Martin on marketing information for farmers using mobile phones
– Fiji is a Pilot for Mobile Phone based systems
– develop a platform for easy dissemination of information for farmers including prices, weather, post-harvesting and harvesting over Mobile Phones
– Vanuatu, Samoa, Tonga, etc
– Good models in Ghana, Uganda, India, etc
– Main issue is scalability in comparison to other countries
– Can we get the numbers to sustain this
– m-Pase is doing well with banking so hopefully it will be the same for agriculture
Q&As
Would the adoption of new technologies like Tablets and iPads make it easier to adopt technology in Education as compared to using old technology of keyboards, etc… so that they don’t look uncomfortable or not confident with the use of ICT tools?
Does this apply to Agriculture as well?
– Just create confidence
– Get others to talk about how they use ICT tools
– Encourage other stakeholders like Ministers and al others

05 – Application: ICT in Key Sectors

This is a summary of presentation as it occurs. Please refer to the slides and the author for further information.

Siaosi Sovaleni Moderator

Jackson Miake – Office of the Government Chief Information Officer, Prime Ministers Office

Michelle Foster – Emergency management Cook Islands and Applied Geoscience & Technology Division, SOPAC.

Andrew Erbs –mHealth and Communications Specialist

Jackson Miake

Vanuatu iGov & ICT Developments       

 

First opportunity to attend PacINET. ICT is like a tool box and how these tools are used will make a difference.

  • Liberalisation of telecoms market 2008
  • Establishment of Independent Telecom Regulator -2008
  • E-governmwent Netwoprk infrastructure
  • Issue oflicenses of ISPs
  • Draft National ICT Policy

Mobile has taken a huge jump since introduction of competition

Internet has 8.5% penetration

E-government status 135/190 countries . At the first stages e-government development

Over the past 12 months ICT Policy has taken large steps forward –establishment of office, made face to face video conference with prime minister and leader of opposition with involvement of people in the outer islands; national ICT day on 17 May this year.

Where are we going:

3 priority areas: education, health, wealth/business. This is underpinned by good ogverance to provide accessibility to citizens.

iGov initiaitive will improve many key areas over the next few years: application

Its anticipated that investment in iGov will reduce costs and increase revenue.

Establishment Vanatu Internet Exchange Point (IPX)

Submarine Cable

Development of Local and Relevant Content

Universal Access Policy Braodband Project (telecentre project)

VBTC sharing towers to transmit TV

Supporting TRR with ccTLD project and protection of children online

iGov will extend to people on the outer islands.

Vanuatu has high level CIO in government which is unusual.

XXXXXXXXXXXXX

Submarine cable is a project that is well advanced and viable

 

Michelle Foster – Cook Islands Disaster Risk Reduction Project Portal (DRPP)

Purpose of DRPP is centralisation of Pacific wide information about DRR – what is happening and where

Search is possible by countries, hazard, dates, themes, activities, donors etc and is exportable to Excel – you can follow links to donors and supporters

This can be represented as graphs and maps. The information output is only as good as the information that is put in.

DRRP avoids duplication, supports planning and coordination

108 projects in the Cook Islands

User manual is currently under development

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Questions from the floor: who is using the information – still waiting for analytics to be applied.

User needs for people with disabilities – has been discussed but not immediately planned for.

 

Andrew Erbs – Mobile Phones for Health Applications in the Health Sector – mHealth and Communications Specialist

 

Works for JTA International and is a passionate supporter of mHealth.

mHealth is a multi-faceted concept. The term was first coined by Prof Robert Istepanian who was referring to sensing technology but has moved to voice, SMS, and so on.

  • Logisitics support
    • Supply Chain Management
    • Pharmaceutical checks
    • Emergency evacuations
    • Monitoring people at homes
    • Real time reporting of vital signs
    • Point of care report – reminders of appointments
    • Data collection
    • Treatment adherence – reminders to take medicine, reminder to return to clinics
    • Training and professional development – access to content rich materials; regular updates via SMS on best practice
    • Education and Awareness
    • Disease tracking – monitoring malaria

Why M4D projects succeed?

  • Most effective when organisation is already running
  • Business model is important to ensure it can be extended and scaled up.
  • Local ICT developers are important for local support

Why M4D fail?

  • Projects are pushed externally
  • Lack of local technical skills
  • Costs are underestimated
  • Cost/design is sustainable

Key message: Mobiles are merely an enabler to support existing capacities and enhance services

The potential of mobile is huge.

Out of 7 billion people there are 6 billion phones (though many may have two?)

Basic phones

Simples, easy to use basic applications

Feature Phones

  • Internet access
  • Camera and maybe audio

Smart phone –

  • High resolution display and advanced processor
  • Applications – just like a mini computer

Free tools available from the Internet

  • Frontline SMS
    • Most simple; Flexible open source
    • Freedom Fone
    • Mobile Music
    • Mobile Medic
    • Rapid SMS
      • more complex

Verification of counterfiet applications app. Coded pill package number can be sent via SMS to hotline to confirm that the drugs are not counterfeit.

Now here is an example of a really good case study about mHealth program should be designed.

Mobile Midwife – Grameen Foundation – Motech – Ghana

 

Key questions

  • What is your audience what are your goals?
  • What’s the time frame or budget for implementation
  • Are you seeking qualitative or quantitative
  • Incetivize reporting
  • Do you have the people power to maintain and support

Service providers

  • Relationships are everything
  • Bulk SMS can be expensive
  • Basic 0.03 cents cost for SMS to telcos.
  • How to scale nationally

Other institutions

  • Relationships are important
  • Evidence is important – if it cant be measured it cant be improved
  • Share learned lessons
  • Literacy challenges
  • Stakeholders have a diverse range of interests – collective action is key – not silos
  • Privacy policy is a challenge

M health has been developed well in Australia, America, New Zealand

Interesting developments

  • New power chargers are being developed from solar cells and bicycle
  • Camera can be used to monitor blood cells and transmitted through phone.

E_Commerce

  • payment

Gameification

  • Nike Plus and fuel band
  • Fitbit One

Research & Education (R&E) networking in the Pacific
David Lassner, Hawaii – U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF)


Explained what he is doing in the Pacific to seek support for the development and funding  of research and education projects.

 

Cloud Computing
Dr Sunil Lal – Senior Lecturer in Computer Science , USP

 

Introduced topic with a comparison of the new technological revolution with the industrial Revolution and the manufacturing industry and the generation of electricity. A huge archive of Newspaper articles raised the need to digitise this material . Installing equipment and configuring everthing required taking months of work cost $000s. Using the cloud and installing Hadopp, installed over the weekend, cost $240.

 

The cloud provides heaps of benefits. NO upfront investment, results in days and trivial total investment. You pay for what you use, rather than having to budget for over-provisioned resources. .

 

Virtualisation is not cloud computing. Virtualisation is the abstraction of software from physical resources that allow you to use multiple systems over a single platform.

Challenge #1 – broadband connection

Challenge #2 – security and privacy – civil or criminal jurisdiction is not defined.

Challenge #3 – resistance to change

 

So what is the best model of cloud computing system for the Pacific?

Public  cloud ?…. as used by Amazon etc – fixed set of items, transparent costs, little possibility of customisation  OR Internal Private cloud ?… IBM, HP, CISCO, Microsoft – use it exclusively for your own purpose. Recommendation: In our infancy of cloud use, it is  probably advisable for the Pacific to use a public cloud

 

The way forward?.. With interchange of cultures, ideas, products, this will only improve as we build the required infrastructures and create a rise in demand for computing services,  moving  towards the adoption of cloud computing

 

Mobile application for Rural Development
Vodafone

 

How can mobile apps contribute to rural development?

Utility VAS – Value Added service which seek to digitally empower citizen by providing efficient access to essential info and services for inclusive growth.

 

Drivers

* Government use

* Increasing mobile phone and network coverage

* Need for differentiation from competitors

* Increased consumer demand for convenience and accessibility

* Business ness of service providers eg hospitals, banks etc

 

Types of UVAs – information based, application based and enablement services (transactional)

Mobile/ICT tools – mobile phone (voice, text, internet); internet via PC, laptops, tablets; broadcast media (now TV, region mobile phone and internet as a results of convergence – are becoming more effective – sms, social media, etc.

 

How can ICT contribute to rural economic development
* Provide information benefiting rural producers and supply chain, etc

* Facilitate access to services – financial services, land use planning, etc

* Facilitate access to markets – e-commerce portals, virtual communities, etc

* Facilitate access to other public services for rural populations (m-health, m-education m-government

* Developing area is M-Banking – mobile money solution – enhanced banking/financial services (potential benefits for consumers and service providers,  but there are still issues that need to be considered by  Fiji – especially accountability, high costs of transactions, etc)

* Other areas: m-Advertising, m-Learning, cloud services for mobiles.

 

Measuring the Quality of Real-Time Internet Traffic
Etuate Cocker – Department of Computer Science, Auckland University

 

Explained his research into latency.

Etuate has put his presentation onto the website.

 

Day 3 – Saturday 24th November

 

09 SIG GIS RS within PICISOC

 Refer to presentation for details. This is a summary of the talk as it occurred and may contain some errors.

Wolf Forstreuter SIG RS in PICISOC

24/11/2012

GIS – Geographic Information System

  • Relatively well established soon on everybody’s laptop

RS – Remote Sensing

  • New developments,
  • internet demanding

Purpose of SIG (Special Interest Group)

Early beginnings –

  • Database of SOPAC was hacked where GIS data was available through access server
  • Email list for sharing between users
  • GIS PacNET  email 400 subscribers 1997-1998
  • Moved to establish user groups
  • Newsletter for Remote Sensing was published
  • Assisting in organising a annual Regional GIS-RS User conference
  • Main purpose is to monitor GIS and RS methods in the Pacific – things that work well in US and Europe don’t always work well in

There are issues in surveying. There is a need for converting local projections to WSG84

GIS PacNET Mailing List

  • GIS –PanNET mailing list was based on PICISOC server
  • GIS-Pac exists about 17 years
  • Essential besides PICISOC mailing list for Pacific GIS-RS users
  • Mailing list is monitored by Litia Gaunavou and Edwin Liava’a

PICISOC website is independent platform from regional organisations where

  • Atlantis – is a virtual island server methods and application data is stored
  • GIS-RS User Conference
  • Reference Image Points
  • Newsletter

Reference Image Points

Picture RIP Data  – Data available needs to be corrected

National GIS-RS User groups are essential because it relieves workload of main organisers. User groups are best able to answer local questions.

 

Annual GIS-RS Conference

  • 200 participants
  • 60 presenters many from PICs
  • Its unique because it brings everyone together – Users Developers and Vendors

Link to PICISOC

  • Data Storage needs Internet solutions
  • Data transport needs Internet solutions

Change with 7 years

  • 2005: GIS in utilities app was the main driver of GIS – (utilities had better maps of the lands department)
  • Now – vegetation mapping/monitoring is very important

o   There is a need for pan-sharpened images

o   Need for near infrared information

o   Need for advanced pre-processing

o   Need for pre-processing in central Pacific Location

Data transport

  • The environment is harsh on DVDs only last a few weeks when not looked after
  • External HDD is used which seems to work when data needs to be exchanged between SOPAC offices in the Pacific
  • Fast internet access is needed to speed this process

Developments

  • Data sharing has improved -> more data transfers
  • From software (test versions) to opens source software -> more internet use
  • SOPAC becomes a reseller for DigitalGlobe -> more data transfer  Data processing cannot be decentralised – centralised processing is still a necessity

Future

  • PISISOC is an organisation independent from regional organisations
  • PICISOC less technical than before
  • No more SIG GIS&RS group meetings during the last year

 

Litia Gaunavou – Image Data Purchasing and pre-processing

 

Pre-processing work done at SOPAC

  • Image stitching – joining maps together
  • Orth-correction –
  • Haze removal – remove distortions due to clouds
  • Atmospheric correction – correct for view and sun angles
  • Pan sharpening – reveals vegetation

Change in past 6 years

A variety of slides showed different colour band photos which reveal different parts of the vegetation

Sachindra Singh – Spatial Data Infrastructure

Are you we just talking about pretty picture – but each picture contains useful data.

Data technology and structure is critical to GIS RS

Brief History of Internet and OSS in SOPAC  – SOPAC has always been an OSS user

SOPAC website has history.

History of Geospatial Platforms – keeping expertise has been a problem which has made maintenance of various mapping systems difficult.

2010 – SOPAC ICT unified and catalogued

2011 Adoption of Geonode Web Mapping Platform

 

A common platform for data storage emerged as a critical need for SOPAC to enable storage and access to non-expert users. This is called Geonode

Geonetwork OS; Geoserver Server; Post GIS -> Geonode

Geonode is like a Facebook for spatial data – it’s a collaborative platform
Data is not owned by SOPAC but it is owned by the membership

Current and future implementation

  • SOPAC Geonode
  • Pacific Risk Information System
  • Maritime Boundaries Project

Entirely Open Source Stack; from Desktop to Processor to Server

Spatial Data Instance (SDI)

 

Federation (long term OSS vision)

Multiple agencies in Pacific host their own SDI instances and manage own datasets. Instances are interconnected and are able to search and consume each others data

Barriers to Entry to SDI Implementation

  • Expertise to set up.
  • Bandwidth

SOPAC has a vision to make OSS available in the region.

Countering bandwidth limitations – each country keep local versions of data

GIS-oriented Linux (Operating System) distribution –

http:// ict.sopac.org/gisos

 

Jutta May – www.pacificdisaster.net

It is not a GIS application but draws on SOPAC’s ICT development staff (Sachindra)

Current work is to review websites about Pacific disaster resources which is being reviewed and catalogued.

There is an offline version on DVD of pacificdisaster.net and is available on mobile.

There are many developments and there is a strategic plan to 2015 will see disaster risk framework merged – information management is key

There are 20+ alerts from Fiji weather stations and are distributed via RSS feeds.

Challenges

  • PDN redesign
  • Information sharing and feedback
  • Information professionals vs Systems
  • Information Management 2015 – DRM and CC framework

French User Interface, integration disaster loss database and projects, user friendliness, technology

PDN strategic plan – implementation

Joe Barr Collection – integration

OCTs – New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Wallis and Fortuna

Country Mission

Pacific DRM information available and shared in quality and quantity through the IDN

Improved awareness of DRM and CC and the impacts of disasters on sustainable national development

Enhanced awareness

Day 4 – Monday 26th November

 

PacINET Internet Goverance Session1 Monday AM

Session 08 Up to Speed: Introduction and update on Internet Goverance Issues

Anju Mangal – Session chair

What is Internet Governance? Think about the range of issues: security, access, privacy, digital divide Internet addiction…  These issues require dialogues and integration between groups and countries. This is where the Internet Governance Forum (IGF)

The UN Assembly declaration of human rights – every one has the right to freedom and expressions without interference which includes media. When the Internet rose to prominence it was linked to the issue of human rights.

The IGF emerged out of the 2006 WSIS in Tunis that aims to bring together civil society, private sector and government.

A small secretariat in Geneva supports the IGF and is financed by voluntary contributions

The IGF Multi-stakeholder Advisory Group (MAG) to advise the Secretary General on the program and schedule of Internet Governance

Dynamic coalitions exists to bring together members with common interests to work to provide issues and solutions to these respective areas.

Docs from the Pacific IGF 2011 available on the PICISOC website

Louise Nasak – Pacific IGF

The IGF in the Pacific emerged out of the Pacific Forum’s meeting in Tonga 2010 – first Pacific IGF meeting in Noumea in April 2011.

Pacific IGF Report

  • Internet for All and the Digital Divide
  • Public Policy
  • Critical Infrastructure
  • Emerging Issues

The next steps each country should convene their own meeting to ensure their unique environment and challenges

Emani Fakaotimanava-Lui – critical infrastructure – feedback transition to IPv6, DNS SEC and role of actors in maintaining critical infrastructure. The importance of consumers was highlighted along with government and private sector. It was heartening to see the head of the ITU and ICANN share common ideals of securing involvement of civil society and private sector in rule setting for the Internet,

Emerging youth issues – citizen journalism, e-waste.

MOU’s between Internet Safe NZ and SPC; and another which I didn’t catch

Maureen Hilyard – DIPLO foundation

The DIPLO foundation provides courses and learning with a focus on developing countries so that they can participate in Internet Goverance.

Internet Governance is difficult to describe because there are many facets. There are many overlapping issues

The DPLO model purposely looks like a ramshackle model based on 5 baskets of knowledge

  • Infrastructure
  • Legal
  • Economic
  • Development
  • Socio-cultural

Based in the University of Malta which was providing regulation course to the diplomatic corp.

Every year DIPLO provides fellowships to people from developing countries to do an introductory course in Internet Governance.

Maureen was the only person from the Pacific – classes represent multi-stakeholder groups.

The course is delivered online with weekly meetings online. Comfortable and user friendly way of learning about the Internet.  They also offer fellowships to go to the global IGF in Hydrabad in India. Many call centres are located there

 

Duangthip Chomprang (Thip) – Internet Society

Report of the Global IGF in Baku

Looking to WCIT meeting in Dubai.

Provide a summary of the latest APT meeting and the implications for PICS

Internet Society and Internet evolved in a conscious way that has a vision for the Internet to be for everyone. This principle is what drives the Internet Society in its 20th year. It wasn’t an accident but conscious effort to keep the Internet open and global for everyone.

Guideline line OECD on policy making on the Internet policy making  is valuable for the including important reflects open and flexi –

  • IG is gravitatng to developing nations
  • Security and privacy is still a concern Big data, trans-border data flow, cloud
  • IG4D – policy for development or do polices actually prevent innovation
  • Internet Application: Disaster reduction; Accessibility to the disabled

Resolution; voluntary not regulatory solutions; do not block innovation and “do no harm” approach.

  • Need a framework to find solutions to address challenges
  • How do we balance access to information and security concerns
  • How de we ensure responsible Internet behaviour and better online experiences
  • Accessibility and costs (IXP and local conetent)
  • Harness innovation
  • Looking to WSIS 2013.

WCT in APT region

  • 45 ACPs . The method of putting proposal to ITU is to put forward ACPs which members are required to vote.
  • No support for China’s proposal which wanted greater network security governance to be given to the ITU.
  • Numbering; combating spam were not supported.
  • Non-discriminatory access to Internet Resolution (BB) by Iran was not supported.

Internet Society supports

“The concepts of competition, regulatory independence, and the engagement of all stakeholders in transparent governance would be an excellent starting point for any revision to the treaty. Further, the ITRs should enshrine a commitment to the use of open and voluntary international standards in support of global interoperability. Finally, we note that the 1988 ITRs were short, concise, and at a sufficiently high level to serve the Member States of the ITU for nearly a quarter of a century without being revised. We encourage ITU Member States to retain the high level nature of the ITRs and resist the temptation to lock in specific business or commercial models, technologies or regulatory approaches that will likely not withstand the test of time.”.

DOES not support international treaty-level regulation of private commercial agreements.  Countries need flexibility to set domestic policies to reflect local marke We do not support international, treaty-level regulation of private commercial agreements. Countries need the flexibility to set domestic policies that reflect local market conditions rather than locked-in, one-size-fits-all, global regulations that may have broad, unintended consequences. Including IP addressing, traffic routing or QoS regulating.

 

Question and Answer session:  The ITU plays a role where it needs to follow UN mandates about multi-stakeholder but is taking a while for this cultural change where ITU followed a more top-down approach. So the ITU secretariat is influential in setting the agenda.

 

11 PacINET Monday Session AM 2 Investment or Loss – Information Management with Information Professional

 

Jutta May – moderator.

Explained that there is a different between Information management, content generation and network management. All are connected but perform different but important jobs

Information manager can located information sources while a knowledge manager take a step further and seek to provide an answer to a question rather than just a resource location. Information managers establish systems that enable information to be stored catalogues and retrieved in an efficient way.

 

Louse Nasak Internet Market and Governance Manager, Vanuatu Regulator office

Information and Knowledge

Louse related the task of information management to summarising and bring to each country the main ideas from the PacINET 2012

Elizabeth Powell (Permanent Secretary to Communications) highlighted the need for capacity building of information managers

Rajnesh Chandra (USP Vice-chancellor)

Emphasised link between knowledge and economy – these two in tandem lead to development

Telecommunications and Radio-communication Regulation Act in Vanuatu (TRR)

TRR  is designed to develop information and knowledge in may ways – the challenge is great to develop the various contributions that government, private sector and community make to collective knowledge development in Vanuatu

Capacity building – lack of skilled workers means that many staff are playing the role of information and knowledge managers.

The process is managed by the communication plan even though changes in circumstances has led to changes to the plan as these challenges

Even though  Vanuatu is considered ahead of the pack

IT people tend to get the job of communcations (updating the website) which is not always a good match. Its about priorities where important issues are viewed different by different professionals.

The challenge of convergence is bring together radio, TV, computing and telecommunication together. There is already a radio station in Vanuatu that is broadcasting via the Internet.

Lack of policy in government departments is holding back effective use of the Internet communicate information to citizens.

The Pacific ICT regulation resource centre has been important in providing a hub in the Pacific regulation training.

Asia Pacific Telecommunications and ITU has also been played a part in staging forums

Way forward?

Information and Knowledge management is also the role of managers

Community of practice may be an effective way of developing knowledge

Virtual communications strategy for

We must first understand why the regulators exist and work from that point as learn how to better manage information and knowledge into the future

 

Jethro Vanuatu ICT Office

First time at PaciNET. The administrator of the websites and databases is responsible for putting up new information about government from government departments. He is assumed to be the information manager but he hasn’t bwwn trained in this area. People are very interested in information and so is a very important job to keep information current. Security of websites is a concern. This job is more like an information manager

 

Maureen Hilyard Cook Islands

Are information managers of value to government?

Governments are the biggest hoarders of information and most of its on paper stored in cupboards. Even though ICTs are common it seems that most are used to generate paper documents.

What information are they collecting and what is being used? There seems to be a need for better management of information.

In the Cook Island is that there are no privacy laws. When seeking a government service, the questions that are asked do not appear to be relevant to the nature of the service being requested. She asks what’s the purpose of this information.

Often you are asked to provide the same information to multiple government departments. Government officials have not accepted the concept of openness and transparency so there seems to be a need for a change in basic attitudes.

Staff profile is an older demographic meaning that they are not open to the benefits of ICTs. Silo mentality prevents cooperation between departments and the public’s right to have access to public information is not recognised.

Job security in government service seems to work against people embracing change. The e-government model

 

Emani Fakaotimanava-Lui – Niue

Internet connectivity in remote Pacific Island nations should be the same speed as other well connected countries like here in Fiji, NZ, etc.

Websites have been a double-edged sword. Initially they are very good but when funding finishes the web site seems to get frozen at the point.He related the case of taoganiue.nu which suffered from the misguided ideas of a regional organisation which took away control of local website. His advice is to engage local knowledge because his story revealed that the website was removed to Samoa and eventually fell over and was returned to Niue where it is now working fine run by the private sector.

If you look at the Niue Gov website you will see an example of website frozen in time when the web company went out of business. Local incentive for updating of website are weak so website is not updated.

 

Pam Bidwell – USP Lecturer Library and Information Studies

Knowledge gap – how does one know that they have a knowledge gap.? How does one know what they don’t know?

Who has been in the position of leaving an assignment to the last minute – if Internet is able there is a temptation to copy and past which extends some times into academic studies and business

Information haves and information have nots is a useful way to understand people’s ability to use information.

So people do not have access to good quality of information  – its difficult to find information that one needs

The other issue is when there is duplication of work between donor organisations.

Librarians are focussed on filling knowledge gaps

The internet is the new arm’s length rule.

  • Do we believe everything we find on Google?
  • Information overload is an issue

Beyond the free internet – there is a lot of quality information that is password protected and used on a fee-for-service basis.

Organisational knowledge  tacit knowledge is the knowledge that is contained inside a person’s head

Word of mouth is useful – information

What happens when the expert leaves?

Retaining knowledge

Traditional

  • In house manauals
  • Previous person trains new staff

Electronic

Network drives

Teaching of skills in information management is necessary. How do we arrange data on electronicn resources. How do we describe the content (meta data). When should information be discarded. Effective relocation strategies

Information literacy

 

Russel Howarth – Director of SOPAC

Research history of SOPAC fidning that in the early 1990s no one knew about GIS while now there is a queues of people wanting training in GIS.

SPC is a large regional organisations that provides and uses data. 14 Terabytes of data exist in SOPAC and 3 TB in the SPC.

Has observed the growth ICTs and noted the challenges of in country presentations.

We need to transform weaknesses in to strengths and threats into and opportunities.

 

I (Information) needs to be separated from the C (ommunications) &T (echnology). This is particularly important in early warning systems. We need to get the message out that is relevant in an end-end system

2. What hooks can we hang our advocacy on? Paragraph 276 – the future we want. We recognise the need to facilitate informed policy development ….

 

3. Risk is a cross cutting issue in the sustainable development agenda. Risks have to be underpinned- basic question what is the minimum level of acceptable risk – if we cannot answer that question we do not have much hope in defining what is a sustainable development agenda. A paradigm shift in thinking is required by policy makers at the highest level – the best way into the minds of these people is to find an issue that is of content that can be used to demonstrated .

 

He cannot answer the following

  • What does an Information Manager looked like? We need to articulate
  • What is their role in an end-end system? Are they professional or are they an officer?
  • What is their role in protecting information quality?
  • What is their communication role?
  • Where do you get those qualifications?

A significant step forward has made if some decide that a job description needs to be written up. What is affordable and do-able and then we will be able to advocate to articulate what these positions will achieve and contribute. …

 

Audience Q&A: The traditional concepts of information storage and retrieval have been challenged by the likes of Google. How relevant are they? Yes they are more relevant than ever because people approach Google simplistically.

The value of information is context dependent on the problem at hand and the capabilities of the person using information.

Applications of technology are western centric and how approrpaite are they to local methods of information exchange.

Pacific Social Change (UNDP) has done research in the use of information in the Pacific.

Its more than about getting data and numbers out there but it has to be put in the hands of the advisers.

Emerging Issues – New Media and the rise of new technologies

Anju Mangal

Social media: Contrasts with traditional media. Where is social media better? what about the dangers?

Verleshwar Singh

Ms Sharon Bhagwan Rolls

Ms Gunela Astbrink

Ms Mue Bentley- Fisher

Ms Maria Ronna Pastorizo Sekiguchi

 

 

Verleshwar Singh – Open Media

Convergence: Making sense of the current media landscape

How are the ways we consume media changed

  1. Traditional media business model
  2. Media owners act as conduit for content
  3. Consumer paying for the content
  4. Companies being giving access to the mdeida audience to deliver advertising
  5. Government regulates media for the benefit of society

The consumer is the critical stakeholder. Business model relies on attracting the attention of audience

Traditional media appears to be in decline – increasing number of channels has led to fragmentation of audience structure and shrinking advertising revenue

Internet has given more meaning to the word globalisation.

Horizontal integration – companies joining to form bigger companies

Vertical disintegration – various parts of media chain are disintegrating – content can be offered to a number of providers.

  • Creation of media channels
  • Democratisation of content
  • User-generated content
  • Personalisation of content
  • Social networking and virtual reality
  • Divergence of consumers groups through social networking

What are the implications for advertising?

  • Advertisers need to alter their strategies
  • Integrated solutions – cross media solutions
  • New media enables greater targeting of audience to make advertising more efficient to target consumers and the can consume when it suits them.

 

Challenges for media owners

Strategy advertising is not avoided by audience

The market is becoming complex. In reality new media will sit along old media behaviours offering consumers a choice

  • Is VoIP/Skype a threat to telecommunications
  • Is IPTV a threat to traditional TV
  • Is elearning threat to face-face/distance?

 

Ms Sharon Bhagwan Rolls – Femlink Pacific

Community media perspective.  How the technology is used is a part of gender equity. Equality of gender is facilitated by new technologies – radio in a box etc.

World Association of Christian Communications is an organisation that promotes participation, human rights, opportunities Communications rights .

There is a more than a commercial purpose to media – there is the need to promote human rights and act as a counterweight to bias from government and commercial. Pricing regimes in broadcasting regime restricts public use of spectrum for common good.  Claiming communications rights is a vehicle to other claiming rights e.g. gender equality.

Internet has enabled citizen journalism for gender equality but it has been limited to urbanisation. Technology deprivation affects women more which can be explained by lack of utilities but also information literacy as well as poverty.

There is a need for ongoing support of community media. What is considered important? What are the important stories? How can communication reinforce dignity and safety?

Communication of diversity – women are not a homogeneous group. Community radio has been important in Femlink to promote its agenda.  Second radioschannel has been launched.  Three radios stations in a box. Various stats reports on number of women who have benefited from the community radio program run by Femlink.

Training has provided people with skills to better participate in decision-making processes and dialogue. The community radio has been effective in giving women confidence to articulate their concerns.

Pacific Digital Strategy needs to account for gender equality. There is a need for convergence between policy and civil society of groups. Ongoing investment in technical and new technologies to promote ongoing.

 

Gunela Astbrink – Internet Society Director

Social media – consumers issues

Social media has become a way for families to connect. Privacy young people have put up in Facebook. What consequences for future employment if employers check Facebook.

Personal details are encouraged by Facebook but it can lead to theft of identity. Its not always clear what information will be made public.

Managing passwords can be an issue.

Accessibility is an issue for FB, Twitter, Linked In,. Lined In has a better record than the others?

  • Perceivable: alt tags on images; alternative
  • Operable: keyboard
  • Understandable:  navigation
  • Robust

Mobile sites have been written for functionality and this seems to be of benefit to people with disabilities.

Useful resource:  Sociability-Social Media for people with a disability by Media Access Australia

Death in social media – what happens to a person online presence when a person on dies?

Cases of photos of deceased photos – how they should be used. Research can inform future regulation

Free speech and regulation in traditional and social media

  • Traditional media has regulation
  • Social media in many cases is outside this country’s jurisdictions
  • Used effectively in Arab Spring
  • What about hateful and discriminatory material When to regulate when not regulate

A list of Australian websites were given that provide information about social media.

Mue Bentley – Forum Secretariat

Has led the way with opening up the forum using Social media such as Facebook. The first place to start is with the staff.

Digital demand On demand democratisation

Public sphere perspective wanting to communication with audiences is a challenge. Its necessary to understand the audience. Pacific member countries with divers cultures and locations – how best to communicate with his group. The FP website is the key medium to communicate with members countries. Staff have been consulted about what they would like to see in Extranet and Intranet as well as Facebook. Comes back to understanding our audience. Print publications are still very important even though it s expensive.

What is communications? Conveying information: Purpose message interpretation language education gender religion.

New media – is it a challenge – infrastructure is a challenge

The message is the biggest challenge.

 

Ms Maria Ronna Pastorizo Sekiguchi – GM Oceanic Web Design and Online Media Services

There approach has been to use either new or traditional in response to what is most effective for the audience.

 Accessibility is it meaningful to separate traditional and new? The cost of communication hardware is dropping but is it still affordable to people in the village?

Measurability – email marketing campaigns –  we use the member database to find out what information people have accessed (did they open the email, where did they click, did it bounce). Compared to traditional media it’s more measurable.

Costs – online store example as compared to the costs of a shop front in Latoka

Time –

Engagement – anyone can be a writer or a journalist. People have the means to do this

Is social media a threat to advertising revenue? Yes. Facebook is free . Traditional media is very expensive. People now have the choice.

Q&A: Femlink is taking small steps to link in with the Internet but is limited by lack of funds and the skills of presenters who are generally school graduates but haven’t gone to university . PODcastes are used to make radio programs available. Website roll has changed from external communication to a more inward purpose.

There is a need for an independent web accessibility testing capability in the Pacific . If anyone is interested please contact wjt@uow.edu.au who has some resources that can help.

PIGF Last Sessions

 

FINTEL – Access
Fintel and Southern Cross
Earlier in 2000 with PTC there was the SPIN initiative. The project is still spinning.
2nd quarter of 2013 Tonga will connect to Fiji.  Esitmated UD$33million
Vanuatu interchange to Fiji.  About USD$29million
4 countries in the Pacific identfied by World Bank for fibre connectivity.
O3B – Other 3 Billion
Hawaiki Submarine Cable – Behind the SPIN project before.  Pacific Fibre failed and now Hawaiki marketing theirs.  ETA 2015.
**************************************
Competition in the international connectivity
Mr Muhammad Aslam Hayat- Director, PiRRC
International Gateway (IGW)
Is it natural monopoly?
– Used to be only submarine cable
– Now VSATS and VoIP
– IGW monopolies allows for llegal bypass that can account for 30-60% traffic
Bottleneck – local regulatories not granting licenses. Not technology
Benefits of IGW liberatlisation
– A monopoly provider has n suficient incentve to satisfy increasingly divese deman for servces
Regulatory frameworks are needed:
– remove monopoly
– encourage competition
introduce sharing and colocation
require dominant licensee to provide a IRO to its competitors
encourgae landing of multiple submarine cables
Various models
– Individual icncese for IGW (BD, FJ, WS)
– ILD/LI(IN, PK)
– Unified license (VU, NG)
-Converged license (PG, M)
– Facility & non-faclity based licenses (SG, LK)
– Internatinoalised calling card license (WS*)
     * interconnection with ANS is yet to take place
IGW competition status in Pacific
Monopolies
– CK, NU FSM, Kiribati, Niue, RMI, TV
Competition
– Fiji, Nauru, Palau, PNG, Samoa, Solomons, Tonga, Vanuatu
International Direct Dialing Rates – Fixd Line (Ratse in USD)
Open access to IGW
– ICT for greater development impact
More info www.pirrc.org
Q&A
Ian – Surely there’s some countries that are too small for competition
Asalm – Not about the size.  Perhaps leave it to the market like Palau with 20 thousand people.
**************************************
Hawaiki Submarine Cable – Todd Sutton (Business Development Director)
South Pacific region specificity
-Huge distances
– Limited populations
– Isoation issues
– Need for chaper and faster bandwidth
– Satellite bandwidth price over 1500USD/Mbps
Southern Cross
– Capacity 6Tb/s
– End of life 2020
Endeavour (Testra) Sydney Hawaii
– Cap 1.2Tbps
Project overview
Australia, NZ and Pacific Islands
– 100Gb from Day 1
– System design capacity – 20Tbps
Time schedule
– Service date 2015
Project development by Intelia (www.intelia.nc)
– Leading telecom integrator
– Partnership with Ericsson, ZTE, Telstra, Prysmian
– 2011 turnover > USD 40M
– Commercial references:
  – Supply and installation of 3G+ mobile network in NC
  – IP transmit service for Gondwana cable in Sydney
Submarine cable experience – in partnership with ASN:
Step 1
Link Sydney-Auck-Hawaii approx 10200km
Norfolk, Noumea, Port Vila, Suva, Wallis, Apia, Pago Pago, Hawaii
Step 2
Link Hawaii to US West Coast approx 4100km
Existing cables running out of life.
Not enough bandwidth right now.  Potential for bigger bandwidth to cater for content.
Q&A –
Looks promising and how much cheaper in comparison compared to existing
Significantly cheaper
What about zigzagging to Niue and Rarotonga
Not out of the question but required to get funding.
What happens if Southern Cross ends in 2020 or 2025?
They are planning something. Southern Cross2?
What are the main difference between SPIN and Hawaiki?
SPIN is about making the Pacific connected.  Pacific Fibre is about connecting Aus and NZ. Hawaiki is about connecting all.
Is its economical to land the 100Gbps cable in a small place like Niue?
Can do Shared Wavelength between islands on the main link cable.
Who are you talking to that already have enough infrastructure to use 100Gbps?
Examples from Japan Fibre to Homes.
Only 25years on the cable so not feasiable to get infrastruture up to scratch to use in islands that don’t have any.
Would Hawaiki be able to connect to Hawaii without the islands?
Yes without some.
How would this help or destroy O3B’s initiative?
Hawaiki is about dropping the latency and offering diversity.  O3B model is different so can’t comment.
No cables being built at the moment.  So best time to build one at a cheaper rate and the best technology.
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